King Henry I of England (c.1068 – 1 December 1135), called Henry Beauclerc (because of his scholarly interests) was the third son of William I of England (his father being commonly known in both England and Normandy as William the Conqueror). He reigned as King of England from 1100 to 1135 in succession to his brother William II of England (known as William Rufus on account of his red face). King Henry also was known by the nickname "Lion of Justice" due to the refinements which he brought about in the rudimentary administrative and legislative
machinery of the time.
He seized power after the death of William II, which occurred during the absence on the Crusades of the eldest brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy (also known as Robert III).
Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism, the aforementioned improvements in the machinery of government, the integration of the divided Anglo-Saxon and Normans within his Kingdom, his reuniting of his father's dominions, and his controversial decision to name his daughter as his heir.