Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. In his own time, the troubadour Bertran de Born called him Òc-e-Non (Yes-and-No), while some later writers referred to him as Richard the Lionheart, Cœur de Lion, as he is still known in France.
Although born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, like most of the Royal Family at the time he was essentially French. When his
parents effectively separated, he remained with Eleanor, and was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168, and county of Poitiers in 1172. Meanwhile, his eldest surviving brother, Henry the Young King, was simultaneously crowned as his father's successor.