Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death in 1901. Her reign lasted more than sixty-three years, longer than that of any other British monarch. Victoria's reign was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. The Victorian Era was at the height of the Industrial Revolution, a period of significant social, economic, and
technological change in the United Kingdom. In that period the British Empire reached its zenith and became the formidable global power of the time.
Victoria, who was almost entirely of German descent (except from her ancestor Sophia of Hanover who was a female-line granddaughter of James I), was the last monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.